ROGER VIVIER

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  • Born: Paris, 13 November 1913.
  • Education: Studied sculpture at l’École des Beaux Arts, Paris.
  • Family: Adopted son, Gérard Benoit-Vivier.
  • Military Service: Performed military service, 1938-39.
  • Career: Designed shoe collection for friend’s shoe factory; opened own , 1937, designing for Pinet and  in France, Miller and Delman in U.S., Rayne and Turner in UK; designed exclusively for Delman, New York, 1940-41 and 1945-47; studied millinery, 1942; opened New York store, Suzanne & Roger, with milliner Suzanne Remy, 1945; returned to Paris, 1947, designing freelance; designed for Dior’s new shoe department, 1953-63; showed signature collections, from 1963; reopened own business in Paris, 1963; designs collections for houses, including Grés, St. Laurent, Ungaro, and Balmain; resigned with Delman, 1992-94; new licensing  with Rautureau, 1994; opened new Paris boutique, 1995.
  • Exhibitions: Musée des Arts de la Mode, Paris, 1987 [retrospective]; Nina Footwear Showroom, New York, [retrospective], 1998; Folies de dentelles, Musée des Beaux-arts et de la dentelle, Alençon, France, 2000.
  • Awards: Neiman Marcus award, 1961; Daniel & Fischer award; Riberio d’; honored by Nina Footwear, 1998.
  • Died: 2 October 1998, in Toulouse, France.
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Roger Vivier was perhaps the most innovative shoe designer of the 20th century and beyond. Vivier’s shoes have had the remarkable ability to seem avant-garde yet destined at the same time to become classics. He maintained an eye for the cutting edge of fashion for six decades. Vivier looked back into the history of fashion and forward to the disciplines of engineering and science for inspiration. The shoes may seem shocking at first; however, it is the way they complete the  that has made Vivier so coveted by top fashion designers for decades. With a sophisticated eye for line, form, and the use of innovative materials, Vivier created  worn by some of the most and prestigious people of both the 20th and 21st centuries, among them Diana Vreeland, the Queen of England, and Marlene Dietrich.

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Vivier worked with some of the most innovative fashion designers, such as , Christian Dior, and Yves Saint Laurent, at the height of their careers. Schiaparelli was the first designer to include Vivier’s shoes in her collections. Vivier was working for the American firm Delman at the time; Delman rejected Vivier’s sketch of the shocking platform shoe which Schiaparelli included in her 1938 collection. In 1947 Vivier began to work for  and the New Look brought new emphasis to the  and foot. Vivier created a number of new  shapes for Dior, including the  and the  heel. During their ten-year association, Dior and Vivier created a golden era of design. In the 1960s Vivier created the low heeled “pilgrim pump” with a square silver , and this shoe is often cited as fashion’s most copied footwear.

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Vivier was one of the first designers to use clear plastic in the design of shoes. His first plastic designs were created in the late 1940s after World War II; however, in the early 1960s he created entire collections in plastic. Vivier popularized the acceptance of the thigh-high boot in the mid-1960s, a fashion considered  for women. Vivier teamed with Delman again in 1992, and the mood his later collections continued to be imaginative and forward thinking. Drawing his inspiration from nature, contemporary fashion, the history of fashion, painting, and literature, Vivier updated some of his earlier designs and was constantly creating new ones to challenge the ideas of footwear design.

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Vivier studied sculpture at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris and later apprenticed at a shoe factory. It was this solid base of training in both aesthetics and technical skills that led him to become known for precision fit as well as innovative design. A Vogue ad for his shoes in 1953 educates the viewer to look beyond the design. Showing the shoes embraced in callipers and other precision tools the ad read, “Now study the heel. It announces an entirely new principle—the heel moved forward, where it carries the body’s weight better.” In another ad from Vogue (1954) the experience of owning a pair of Vivier shoes was likened to owning a  suit or dress, “a perfection of fit and .”

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Vivier’s shoes not only had the ability to complete a silhouette with an  that made a whole, but the beauty of their line, form, and  made them creations that stood alone as objects of art. Vivier’s strong combination of design and craftsmanship allowed his shoes to stand prominently in the permanent collections of some of the world’s most prestigious museums—the Costume Institute of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; the Victoria & Albert Museum, London; and the Musée du Costume et de la Mode of the Louvre, Paris.

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In 1994 the 86-year-old Vivier signed a new licensing agreement with Rautureau Apple Shoes, which in turn allowed him to open a  in Paris the following year. The Rautureau venture gave Vivier the backing to continue doing what he loved most—designing shoes. Yet three years later, in October 1998, Vivier died in Toulouse, France. He was remembered by many, including fellow shoe designer , who told People magazine, “People try to copy him, but it’s impossible to find that mix of technical skill and design.” Kenneth Jay Lane, who had worked with the master , declared, “He was the world’s greatest artist of shoe design.”

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An invaluable collection of great design! Offering a range of styles, the interiors represent the best from the late 1960s into the first years of the 70s. Included are Britwell Salome’s estate designed by David Hicks, Federico Forquet’s apartment in Rome, Roger Vivier’s apartment in Paris, Maurice Rheims’ apartment in Paris, Lagerfeld’s Paris apartment including the bathroom, Valentino’s apartment in Rome, Chateau Mouton-Rothschild, Count Panza’s apartment in Milan, the Paris home of Quasar and Emmanuelle Khanh, and the apartment of Gunther Sachs in the Palace Hotel in Saint-Moritz. This collection profiles the work of Serge Royaux, David Mlinaric, Jacques Thual, Aldo Jacober, David Hicks, Jean Dive, Piero Pinto, Michel Cruchot, Gerard Gallet, Alberto Pinto, Yves Vidal and Charles Sevigny, Anita Bachman, Michel Boix-Vives, Alain Demachy, Jacques Demachy, Jay Spectre, Marc du Plantier, Yves Houdin, Francois Catroux, John Stefanidis, Henri Samuel, Didier Aaron, Jean-Paul Faye, Gae Aulenti, Gerard Gallet, Jacques Simon, Pierre Sels, Paolo Tommasi, Michel Boyer,Maria Pergay, Isabelle Hebey, Martine Dufour, Andre Putman, Francois Arnal and Atelier A, Nanda Vigo, architect Claudio Dini, architect Michel Sadirac, architect Carla Venosta, architect Lawrence Michaels, architect Arthur Finn, and the Swiss house by Marcel Breuer.

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Left to right: Creative Director Bruno Frison with Ines de la Fressange; A display of Roger Vivier shoes; Diego Della Valle, CEO of Tod’s Group.

INES DE LA FRESSANGE

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Inès Marie Lætitia Églantine Isabelle de Seignard de la Fressange (born 11 August 1957), is a French supermodel and designer of fashion and perfumes.

She was born in Gassin, Var, France. Her French father, André de Seignard de La Fressange (b. 1932) (a marquis), was a stockbroker, and her mother, Cecilia Sanchez-Cirez, was an Argentine model. She grew up in an 18th-century mill outside Paris with three brothers. Her grandmother was Madame Simone Jacquinot, heiress to the Lazard banking fortune.

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In the 1980s, she became the first model to sign an exclusive modeling contract with an haute couture fashion house, Chanel, by fashion designer Karl Lagerfeld, whose muse she became. However, in 1989, Lagerfeld and De la Fressange had an argument and parted company. Likely this argument was, at least in part, regarding her decision to lend her likeness to a bust of Marianne, the ubiquitous symbol of the French republic. Lagerfeld reputedly condemned her decision, saying Marianne was the embodiment of “everything that is boring, bourgeois, and provincial” and that he would not dress up historic monuments.

In 1990, she married Luigi d’Urso (d. March 23, 2006), an Italian railroad executive, with whom she had two daughters.

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Currently, De la Fressange does not model very often. Instead, she is a businesswoman with a chain of clothing boutiques, a designer, and a consultant for Jean-Paul Gaultier. She presented a creation by Gaultier for his Spring/Summer 2009 haute couture collection at the Paris Haute Couture Fashion Week and walked the runway for Gaultier during the event, at age 51.

PUBLICATIONS

By Vivier:

    Books

  • Vivier, Paris, 1979.
  • Vivier, Roger, and Cynthia Hampton, Les souliers de Roger Vivier [exhibition catalogue], Paris, 1987.

On Vivier:

    Books

  • Swann, June, Shoes, London, 1982.
  • McDowell, Colin, Shoes: Fashion and Fantasy, New York, 1989.
  • Trasko, Mary, Heavenly Soles: Extraordinary Twentieth-Century Shoes, New York, 1989.
  • Provoyer, Pierre, Vivier, Paris, 1991.
  • Pringle, Colombe, Roger Vivier, New York & London, 1999.
  • Musée des Beaux-arts et de la dentelle, Folies de dentelles, [exhibition catalogue], Alençon, France, 2000.
    Articles

  • Cassullo, Joanne L., “Four Hundred Shoes,” in Next, December 1984.
  • Bricker, Charles, “Fashion Afoot: Roger Vivier, the Supreme Shoemaker Comes to New York,” in Connoisseur (New York), December 1986.
  • Buck, Joan J., “A Maker of Magic,” in Vogue (New York), December 1987.
  • “Styles,” in the New York Times, 9 August 1992.
  • Weisman, Katherine, “Rautureaus Sell Stake; Ink Vivier Deal,” in Footwear News, 28 February 1994.
  • Menkes, Suzy, “Master Cobbler Sets Up Shop Again,” in the International Herald Tribune, 24 January 1995.
  • Baber, Bonnie, et al., “The Design Masters,” in Footwear News, 17 April 1995.
  • Weisman, Katherine, “Roger Vivier, 90, Mourned by Shoe World,” in Footwear News, 12 October 1998.
  • “Died, Roger Vivier,” in Time, 19 October 1998.
  • “Roger Vivier, France’s Footwear Extraordinaire,” [obituary] in People, 26 October 1998.
  • Carmichael, Celia, “Legendary Status: Nina Honors the Creative Genius of Roger Vivier,” in Footwear News, 21 December 1998.— Dennita Sewell; updated by Sydonie Benét

*I always loved Roger Vivier’s designs.Takes me back in time. Is romantic, aristocratic and timeless.Thirteen years ago, I did a project called Palais Royal and Roger and Chanel were my inspiration.

adriana sassoon

www.rogervivier.com

WOMEN’S FASHION 1930

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WOMEN’S FASHION 1930

In the 1930s there was a return to a more genteel, ladylike appearance. Budding rounded busts and waistline curves were seen and hair became softer and prettier as hair perms improved. Foreheads which had been hidden by cloche hats were revealed and adorned with small plate shaped hats. Clothes were feminine, sweet and tidy by day with a return to real glamour at night.

The French designer Madeleine Vionnet opened her own fashion house in 1912. She devised methods of bias cross cutting during the 1920s using a miniature model. She made popular the halter neck and the cowl neck.

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The bias method has often been used to add a flirtatious and elegant quality to clothes. To make a piece of fabric hang and drape in sinuous folds and stretch over the round contours of the body, fabric pattern pieces can be cut not on the straight grain, but at an angle of 45 degrees. 

It is sometimes said that Vionnet invented bias cutting, but historical evidence suggests that close fitting gowns and veils of the medieval period were made with cross cut fabrics. The Edwardians also made skirts that swayed to the back by joining a bias edge to a straight grain edge and the result was a pull to the back that formed the trained skirt. She did really popularise it and the resulting clothes are styles we forever associate with movie goddesses and dancers like Ginger Rogers. 

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Using her technique designers were able to produce magnificent gowns in satins, crepe-de-chines, silks, crepes and chiffons by cross cutting the fabric, creating a flare and fluidity of drapery that other methods could not achieve. Many of the gowns could be slipped over the head and came alive when put on the human form. Some evening garments made women look like Grecian goddesses whilst others made them look like half naked sexy vamps. Certain of her gowns still look quite contemporary.

 

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There was a passion for sunbathing. Women tried to get tans and then show them off under full length backless evening dresses cut on the true cross or bias and which moulded to the body. To show off the styles a slim figure was essential and that was getting easier for women who were educated and aware as many now used contraception and did not have to bear baby after baby unless desired. 

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The new improved fabrics like rayon had several finishes and gave various effects exploited by designers eager to work with new materials. Cotton was also used by Chanel and suddenly it was considered more than a cheap fabric for work clothes. But nothing cut and looked like pure silk and it was still the best fabric to capture the folds and drapes of thirties couture. Fine wool crepes also moulded to the body and fell into beautiful godets and pleats.

Schiaparelli liked new things as well as new ideas. In 1933 she promoted the fastener we call the zip or zipper. The metal zip had been invented in 1893 and by 1917 it was somewhat timidly used for shoes, tobacco pouches and U.S. Navy windcheater jackets. Her use of the new plastic coloured zip in fashion clothes was both decorative, functional and highly novel. They soon became universally used and are now a very reliable form of fastening. 

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Health and fitness was an important aspect of thirties lifestyle. As sun worshipping became a common leisure pursuit fashion answered the needs of sun seekers by making chic outfits for the beach and its surrounds. Beach wraps, hold alls, soft hats and knitted bathing suits were all given the designer touch.

Swimwear was getting briefer and the back was scooped out so that women could develop tanned backs to show off at night in the backless and low backed dresses. The colours of the beach holiday were  navy, white, cream, grey, black and buff with touches of red.

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Pyjamas introduced as informal dinner dress or nightwear for sleeping died quickly as fashions. However the third use of them as a practical beach outfit caught on and every woman made them an essential garment to pack. They were soon regarded as correct seaside wear. The trousers were sailor style, widely flared and flat fronted with buttons. They were made up in draping heavy crepe-de-chine. Blue and white tops or short jackets finished the holiday look.

 

WOMEN’S FASHION 1920

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Various social trends were at work during the 1920s. Historians have characterized the decade as a time of frivolity, abundance and happy-go-lucky attitudes. In 1920, women got the right to vote, and a year earlier, alcohol had become illegal. World War I had just ended. The 1920’s would mark the first youth revolution, long before the 1960’s.

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Young people were very indignant after World War I, and felt the older generation had just murdered millions of young boys. So they stopped obeying conventional rules and invented their own liberated culture: driving their own cars, and drinking, and petting with people they weren’t married to. And, for the first time in history, older women started copying younger women. In the late 19th Century, younger women wanted to look like grownups. Now, for the first time, everyone wanted the thinness and relative bosomlessness of early adolescence. People felt free-spirited and wanted to have fun. As a result, fashions became less formal. The biggest phenomenom of the 1920’s was the worship of youth.

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The feminine liberation movement had a strong effect on women’s fashions. Most importantly, the corset was discarded! For the first time in centuries, women’s legs were seen. Women wanted to be “smarty” and/or freewheeling. Talking about Freud and sex were signs of hipness. Young men, “the flaming youth,” wore raccoon coats and drove around in old used Model Ts. Black-influenced jazz music and dance styles (ie. the Charleston and the Black Bottom) captivated white youth to the dismay of their parents. Dating, as we know it today, was invented in the 1920s. Previously, boys had to be courting a girl, they had to be committed, and girls had to be engaged to them in order to go out with them. The unchaperoned date was something new. Dating permitted people to see each other, and discover each other without having to proclaime an intent to marry. When flappers and flaming youth got together, the results was explosive. Petting was a popular and well received pastime for the youth. It allowed a girl to have erotic interaction without endangering herself with an unwanted or out of wedlock child. Petting could mean kisses or fondling, but it stopped just short of intercourse, and while parents equated petting with fornication, teenagers did not, and their peer group would still accept them and respect them. Intimacy and eroticism was explored. “Petting Parties,” where eager, youthful hands explored the nether regions of the opposite sex, was standard college entertainment. “Billing and cooing” (that is, to “bill and coo”) was to whisper sweet nothings while “making whoopee.”

1920s style fashion

The flapper was the heroine of the Jazz Age. She was the culmination of all the trends of the 20’s. With short hair and a short skirt, rolled hose and powdered knees – the flapper must have seemed like a rebel to her mother (the gentle Gibson girl of an earlier generation). No longer confined to home and tradition, the typical flapper was a young women who was often thought of as a little fast and maybe even a little brazen. She defied conventions of acceptable feminine behavior. The flapper was “modern.” Traditionally, women’s hair had always been worn long. The flapper wore it short, or bobbed. She used make-up (which she might well apply in public). She wore baggy dresses which often exposed her arms as well as her legs from the knees down. Strings of pearls trail from her shoulder or are knotted at the neck and thrown over the right shoulder or under the arm. Silver bracelets are worn on her upper arm. Flappers did more than symbolize a revolution in fashion and mores  they embodied the modern spirit of the Jazz Age.louise_20brooks

1920s fashion, though, was about so much more than fringed flapper dresses and feathered headbands, the cliche that many people associate with the era. As with every decade, the ’20s had its fads as well as its classics, a few of which live on today. It was a romantic era for fashion, which is why people look back at this era with great fondness and still emulate its style. The era set the standard for the modern concept of beauty. The modern supermodel’s figure, is — itself  modeled after the 1920’s ideal of a woman’s figure (that of a thin pre-pubesent girl on the verge of puberty). The central phenomenom of the era was the worship of youth. For the first time in history, older women started copying younger women.1920

The pre-pubesent girl look became popular, including flattened breasts and hips, and bobbed hair. Fashions turn to the “little girl look” in “little girl frocks”: curled or shingled hair, saucer eyes, the turned-up nose, bee-stung mouth, and de-emphasized eyebrows, which emphasize facial beauty. Shirt dresses have huge Peter Pan collars or floppy bow ties and are worn with ankle-strap shoes with Cuban heels and an occasional buckle. Under wear is fashionable in both light colors and black, and is decorated with flowers and butterflies. With the cult of youth and the new spirit of equality come the camisole knickers; also fashionable is no underwear at all. Along with the rage for drastic slimming, women still strive to flatten their breasts and de-emphasize their hips. The cult of the tan begins; lotions to prevent burning and promote tanning appear on the market. Skin stains are also manufactured, as well as moisturizers, tonics, cream rouges, eye shadows, and more varied lipstick shades.

In the 1920s, a lot of clothing was still made at home or by tailors and dressmakers. The brand-name, ready-to-wear industry didn’t really exist until the 1930s, however some ready-made clothing was available from department stores and mail-order catalogs. Several magazines devoted to sewing were sources for patterns, transfers and appliques by mail. However, improved production methods enabled manufacturers to easily produce clothing affordable to working families. Because of this, the average person’s fashion sense became more sophisticated.

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In 1923, the boyish bobbed hair transforms into the shingle cut, flat and close to the head, with a center or side part. A single curl at each ear is pulled forward onto the face. New felt cloche hats appear with little or no decoration in colors that match the day’s dress. Hats are pulled down to the eyes, and their brims are turned up in the front or back. In clothing, the straight line still emphasized the pre-pubesent look, but fabrics are now embroidered, striped, printed, and painted, influenced by Chinese, Russian, Japanese, and Egyptian art. Oriental fringed scarves, slave bangles, and long earrings were set off. Artificial silk stockings, later called rayon, are stronger and less expensive that real silk ones, although they are shiny. The new seamless stocking, despite its wrinkling, also makes the leg look naked. At bedtime, girls wear pajama bottoms, halter tops, and boudoir cape to protect their new hairdos.

By 1926, women were wearing skirts, shortest of the decade, stopping just below the knee with flouncing pleats; they are worn with horizontal-striped sweaters and long necklaces. Short and colorful evening dresses have elaborate embroidery, fringes, futuristic designs, beads, and appliques. The cocktail dress is born. The new sex appeal extends from the bee-stung mouth and tousled hair to a new focus on legs, with silk stocking rolled around garters at rouged knees. The “debutante slouch” emerges: hips thrown forward, as the woman grips a cigarette holder between her teeth. Mothers and daughters are flappers, many nearly nude beneath the new, lighter clothing.

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There were two important ethnic influences on the fabric and prints of the 1920s. One was a Chinese influence, with kimono-styling, embroidered silks, and the color red. The discovery of King Tut’s tomb brought a rash of Egyptian fashion and and accessories, including snake bracelets that encircled the upper arm. Small floral and geometric prints were prevalent throughout the decade, especially toward the latter half.

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Evening Wear
Contrary to popular belief, women didn’t always wear fringed flapper dresses with feathered bandeaux and a long strand of beads. There were many other styles of evening dresses.

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Evening clothes were made of luxurious fabrics — mostly silks — in velvets, taffetas and chiffon. In the mid-1920s, sleeveless silk chiffon dresses were were often embellished with elaborate beadwork. Dresses were designed to move while dancing. Some had long trailing sashes, trains or asymmetric hemlines. Typically, women did not wear hats for evening, but instead wore fancy combs, scarves and bandeaux.

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 Possibilities Emerge …

Possibilities emerge when we earnestly search for what is hindering our destiny to flow naturally.
There are times when it seems that we are going round and round in circles about the same situation and our horizon shows no perspective whatsoever.
Many times, we fail to perceive that we have become wearied of some situations and it is time for us to open up to new things.

We have a habit of creating standards and routines hindering new possibilities to appear… because standards and routines imprison us in an endless repetition of the same things.
There are countless things chaining us to the past, never allowing the present to happen, things that manifest themselves as soon as we open the door.
We are imprisoned by pain and fear… when they prevent us from even getting close to setting them free and achieve what is beyond.

We tie ourselves to what was good… but now it is in the past… this also keeps us from allowing new things to enter our lives…
Actually, if we would remember that we are only present when we are whole at those moments, then we would allow life to flow without tying ourselves to the concepts of “good” and “bad”…

Many times we are imprisoned even in the Light… to some special experience, from this or other lives that gratified, and that we keep trying to repeat now, without remembering that the Light is available when we are in the present time accessing all the possibilities as we sink into creative emptiness.
Trying to live the situations you had in the past, for the best that they may have been… only keeps us from other possibilities that can reveal even more precious experiences than those we have in our memory.
Haven’t you noticed how we repeat our daily routines and almost never remember that the day can be filled with different things… different experiences… different ways to practice things…

So many people say they want new things in their lives…but only accept what comes in old colors… because it gives an illusion of safety.
To really access what the Universe has for us… we must be willing to give up many things… and that may happen in a much gentler way than we think it could, when our choices are made in the present.
Be the Light… Be the shadow… let go … if this is holding you in some way, and open yourself to the countless possibilities that are present in the moments in which when we are whole… here and now
Then… a magic field opens up with ever more… and more… to be explored, leading us to discover that the Universe is unlimited in possibilities…