BAUHAUS BERLIN

ADRIANA SASSOON IN BERLIN

ADRIANA SASSOON BAUHAUS BAUHAUS ARCHIV BAUHAUS BERLIN BAUHAUS MUSEUM BERLIN OPERA WALTER GROPIUS

Staatliches Bauhaus (help·info), commonly known simply as Bauhaus, was a school in Germany that combined crafts and the fine arts, and was famous for the approach to design that it publicized and taught. It operated from 1919 to 1933, literally  “house of construction”, stood for “School of Building”.

The Bauhaus school was founded by Walter Gropius in Weimar. In spite of its name, and the fact that its founder was an architect, the Bauhaus did not have an architecture department during the first years of its existence. Nonetheless it was founded with the idea of creating a “total” work of art in which all arts, including architecture, would eventually be brought together. The Bauhaus style became one of the most influential currents in Modernist architecture and modern design.[1] The Bauhaus had a profound influence upon subsequent developments in art, architecture, graphic design, interior design, industrial design, and typography.

The school existed in three German cities (Weimar from 1919 to 1925, Dessau from 1925 to 1932 and Berlin from 1932 to 1933), under three different architect-directors: Walter Gropius from 1919 to 1928, Hannes Meyer from 1928 to 1930 and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe from 1930 until 1933, when the school was closed by its own leadership under pressure from the Nazi regime.

The changes of venue and leadership resulted in a constant shifting of focus, technique, instructors, and politics. For instance: the pottery shop was discontinued when the school moved from Weimar to Dessau, even though it had been an important revenue source; when Mies van der Rohe took over the school in 1930, he transformed it into a private school, and would not allow any supporters of Hannes Meyer to attend it.

 http://www.bauhaus.de/

BAUHAUS & MUSIC

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The Bauhaus was initially supported and funded by the Weimar Government, but in 1925, the support was withdrawn and the School moved to Dessau. In Dessau, the Bauhaus used many of its ‘modernist’ principles to design functional housing for the Government. In 1932, the Bauhaus moved to Berlin. Bauhaus was a front due to the numbers of Russian artists, including Kandinsky, who were a part of the Bauhaus. In 1933, in accordance with other acts to shut down all non-Aryan forms of artistic expression, the Bauhaus was closed. This was the same year than many Jewish Professors and Directors were removed from University Positions and Government appointments in the arts, including the Opera and Symphony houses and Museums.

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The Bauhaus, Arts, flourished, and its influence in design and building are still felt: it was a major moving force behind design and concept in ‘pop’ art of the 1950s and ’60s, and influenced the design of furniture and even utensils in the ‘modern’ styles which are designed to be aesthetically pleasing and utterly streamlined in function. (the computer lingo of ‘user-friendly’ would be appropriate.) Those who founded and influenced the Bauhaus continued in their own right. Kandinsky greatly influenced a form of expressionism called, “Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider)” , Klee went onto become an internationally respected painter and muralist, and Gropius’s influence in architecture was felt into the 60s in the United States. Hitler was able to stop the ‘institution’ of the Bauhaus, but his censorship probably only served to further the Bauhaus Concept and Influence, as many rallied to its cause, in support of Artistic Freedom.

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 REFERENCES & LINKS

The Bauhaus Museum
The Bauhaus
Der Blaue-Reiter: The Blue Rider School
Kandinsky GermanCulture.com: Bauhaus

When Gropius founded the Bauhaus, a School for Art, Design, and Architecture, he wanted to create an environment of experimentation and synthesis. The Bauhaus represented both a school and place, where Art, Form, Music and Design were to be seen in juxtaposition to one another, in what we now refer to as a ‘holistic’ approach. The Bauhaus gave free reign also to the school of Expressionism and others such as Dadaism and Cubism. Artists such as Klee, Dix and Klindinsky sought to incorporate in new art forms, classical and contemporary music, mysticism and religious beliefs and for some like Klindinsky, occultism in the form of Theosophy;The Bauhaus offered one common unique agenda: that form in art was not fixed, and that ideas were as central to art as technique: this central principle encompassed the arts in their fullness and was applied to every discipline from architecture to sculpture, although the combination of craftsman and artist particulary in Architecture remained its central focus.

The Bauhaus was initially supported and funded by the Weimar Government, but in 1925, the support was withdrawn and the School moved to Dessau. In Dessau, the Bauhaus used many of its ‘modernist’ principles to design functional housing for the Government. In 1933, in accordance with other acts to shut down all non-Aryan forms of artistic expression, the Bauhaus was closed. This was the same year than many Professors and Directors were removed from University Positions and Government appointments in the arts, including the Opera and Symphony houses and Museums.

The  Arts, flourished, and its influence in design and building are still felt: it was a major moving force behind design and concept in ‘pop’ art of the 1950s and ’60s, and influenced the design of furniture and even utensils in the ‘modern’ styles which are designed to be aesthetically pleasing and utterly streamlined in function. (the computer lingo of ‘user-friendly’ would be appropriate.) Those who founded and influenced the Bauhaus continued in their own right. Kandinsky greatly influenced a form of expressionism called, “Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider)” , Klee went onto become an internationally respected painter and muralist, and Gropius’s influence in architecture was felt into the 60s in the United States.

www.musicara.de

Walter Gropius, Founder of the Bauhaus

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Born: May 18, 1883 in Berlin, Germany

Died: July 5, 1969

Full Name: Walter Adolph Gropius

Education: Technical Universities in Münich and Berlin

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Gropius House, Lincoln, MA, 1938

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Selected Works:

·         1910-1911: Fagus Works, Alfred an der Leine, Germany

·         1925: The Bauhaus Building, Dessau, Germany

·         1937: Gropius House, Lincoln, MA

·         1950: Harvard Graduate Center, Cambridge, MA

·         1963: Pan Am Building, in collaboration with Pietro Belluschi, New York

Best Known For:

Walter Gropius was a German architect and art educator who founded the Bauhaus school of design, which became a dominant force in architecture and the applied arts in the 20th century. Gropius taught that all design should be functional as well as aesthetically pleasing. The Bauhaus school pioneered a functional, severely simple architectural style, featuring the elimination of surface decoration and extensive use of glass.

The Bauhaus school attracted many artists, including painters Paul Klee and Wassily Kandinsky, graphic artist Käthe Kollwitz, and expressionist art groups such as Die Brücke and Der Blaue Reiter.

Related People:

When Gropius resigned from the Bauhaus School in 1928, architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe became the next director. Other influential Bauhaus architects included:

·         Le Corbusier

·         Richard Neutra

·         Philip Johnson

More About Walter Gropius:

Although Gropius is best known for the Bauhaus style, his architectural reputation was first established when, working with Adolph Meyer, he designed the Fagus Works (1910-1911) and the office building for the Werkbund exhibition in Cologne (1914).

After several years in England, Gropius began teaching architecture at Harvard University. As a Harvard professor, Gropius introduced Bauhaus concepts and design principles – teamwork standardization, and prefabrication – to a generation of American architects.

Between 1938 to 1941, Gropius worked on several houses with Marcel Breuer. They formed the Architects Collaborative in 1945. Among their commissions were the Harvard Graduate Center (1946), the U.S. Embassy in Athens and the University of Baghdad. One of Gropius’s later designs, in collaboration with Pietro Belluschi, was the Pam Am Building (now the Metropolitan Life Building) in New York City.

Architecture Resources

Picture Dictionary of Modern ArchitectureWorld’s Tallest BuildingsArt Moderne House Style

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BAUHAUS

BAUHAUS

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Bauhaus 1919-1933

The Bauhaus occupies a place of its own in the history of 20th century culture, architecture, design, art and new media. One of the first schools of design, it brought together a number of the most outstanding contemporary architects and artists and was not only an innovative training centre but also a place of production and a focus of international debate. At a time when industrial society was in the grip of a crisis, the Bauhaus stood almost alone in asking how the modernisation process could be mastered by means of design.

Founded in Weimar in 1919, the Bauhaus rallied masters and students who sought to reverse the split between art and production by returning to the crafts as the foundation of all artistic activity and developing exemplary designs for objects and spaces that were to form part of a more human future society. Following intense internal debate, in 1923 the Bauhaus turned its attention to industry under its founder and first director Walter Gropius (1883–1969). The major exhibition which opened in 1923, reflecting the revised principle of art and technology as a new unity, spanned the full spectrum of Bauhaus work. The Haus Am Horn provided a glimpse of a residential building of the future.

In 1924 funding for the Bauhaus was cut so drastically at the instigation of conservative forces that it had to seek a new home. The Bauhaus moved to Dessau at a time of rising economic fortunes, becoming the municipally funded School of Design. Almost all masters moved with it. Former students became junior masters in charge of the workshops. Famous works of art and architecture and influential designs were produced in Dessau in the years from 1926 to 1932.

Walter Gropius resigned as director on 1st April 1928 under the pressure of constant struggles for the Bauhaus survival. He was succeeded by the Swiss architect Hannes Meyer (1889–1954) whose work sought to shape a harmonious society. Cost-cutting industrial mass production was to make products affordable for the masses.

Under Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1886–1969) the Bauhaus developed from 1930 into a technical school of architecture with subsidiary art and workshop departments.

Less is More

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (March 27, 1886, Aachen – August 17, 1969, Chicago .He is commonly referred to, and was addressed, as Mies, his surname. Along with Walter GropiusLe Corbusier andOscar Niemeyer, he is widely regarded as one of the pioneering masters of modern architecture.

THE MEANING

Mies pursued an ambitious lifelong mission to create a new architectural language that could be used to represent the new era of technology and production. He saw a need for an architecture expressive of and in harmony with his epoch, just as Gothic architecture was for an era of spiritualism. He applied a disciplined design process using rational thought to achieve his spiritual goals. He believed that the configuration and arrangement of every architectural element, particularly including the character of enclosed space, must contribute to a unified expression.

The self-educated Mies painstakingly studied the great philosophers and thinkers, past and present, to enhance his own understanding of the character and essential qualities of the technological times he lived in. More than perhaps any other practising pioneer of modernism, Mies mined the writings of philosophers and thinkers for ideas that were relevant to his architectural mission. Mies’ architecture was guided by principles at a high level of abstraction, and his own generalized descriptions of those principles intentionally leave much room for interpretation. Yet his buildings are executed as objects of beauty and craftsmanship, and seem very direct and simple when viewed in person.

Every aspect of his architecture, from overall concept to the smallest detail, supports his effort to express the modern age. The depth of meaning conveyed by his work, beyond its aesthetic qualities, has drawn many contemporary philosophers and theoretical thinkers to continue to further explore and speculate about his architecture.

The Seagram Building NY

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INSPIRATION

There is no doubt that the Bauhaus movement (1919 to 1933) occupies a special position in the ranks of art schools. Its uniqueness and doctrines widened the horizons of modern architecture and art. Its theories of applied art and design shaped the 20th century style: The Bauhaus made its mark. The changing economic structure had serious consequences for the trades in industrial mass products and swept aside handcrafted products. It was not the machine era that was responsible for the inferiority of modern art, but the excessive striving for maximum profit, which lowered the quality of the products. The machine was a phenomenon very much in keeping with the times.The members of the Bauhaus school of architecture migrated throughout the world and guided design theory and production. This led to a dominance of simplicity, clarity and Functionalism Optical Art within the Bauhaus movement is a form of perceptual abstraction that generates optical effects in the visual system of the viewer by use of cleanly designed patterns. Minimalism within the movement is an expression of pure form reduced to its simplest expression.The Art Nouveau involves the stylization of elongated form to its essentials. Symmetrical and rectilinear Art Deco represented the Modern style in its most extreme form.Sassoon was inspired by Bauhaus. He related hairdressing to architecture. As an architect would create a structure within the parameters of a city using its natural geographic landscape, so the hairdresser would cut hair within the confines of a human face using the natural structure of the bones.In design, Sassoon haircuts were always ahead of the times. Vidal Sassoon’s perception of the Bauhaus movement is to be regarded as a productive process. He was inspired by the aesthetic admiration for a specific aspect of the Bauhaus tradition. On the other hand, he was seeking answers to the questions that the era posed for the hairdressing craft and receiving inspiration through architecture.

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